At the turn of the century, the Ottoman Empire ruled much of the Middle East. By 1920 the Ottoman Empire would cease to exist. European imperialism, internal political turmoil, and the coming World War all undermined an aging empire that was struggling to keep pace politically, militarily, and economically with an insurgent Europe. In today's episode Mike and Danny discuss the internal political turmoil in the Ottoman Empire just before the outbreak of WWI.
- Goldschmidt, Arthur; Davidson, Lawrence. A Concise History of the Middle East 8th edition
- Fromkin, David. A Peace to End All Peace: The Fall of the Ottoman Empire and the Creation of the Modern Middle East
- McCarthy, Justin. The Ottoman Peoples and the End of Empire
- Rogan, Eugene. The Fall of the Ottomans
- Quataert, Donald. The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922